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A necklace is an article of jewelry which is worn around the neck. Necklaces are frequently formed from a metal jewellery chain. Necklaces have been an integral part of jewelry since the time of ancient civilizations and pre-date the invention of writing.
In the modern era, a variety of new metals are available for necklaces that earlier generations could not properly melt until high-temperature crucibles and blowtorches were developed, such as stainless steel and titanium; electroplating has enabled mass ownership of gold (or at least gold-veneer) jewelry. Miniaturisation and laser etching enable the crafting of finely detailed artwork, or insignias or other calligraphy, within individual necklace elements.
Women’s necklaces are often classified by length.
30 centimetres (12 inch) to 33 centimetres (13inch) long and sits high on the neck.
35 centimetres (14 inch) to 41 centimetres (16 inch) long and sits high on the neck.
A princess necklace is 43 centimetres (17 inch) to 48 centimetres (19 inch) long, longer than a choker, but shorter than a matinee.
A matinee length necklace is 50 centimetres (20 inch) to 60 centimetres (24 inch) long — typically a single strand that rests at the top of the cleavage.
An opera necklace is 71 centimetres (28 inch) to 86 centimetres (34 inch) long and sits at the breastbone.
A rope necklace is 101 centimetres (40 inch) to 114 centimetres (45 inch) long and any necklace longer than opera length.
A lariat is a very, very long variation on the rope, without a clasp, often worn draped multiple times around the neck; the ends can be crossed over, looped, or knotted in various ways. This type of necklace sometimes incorporates a loop at one or both ends to allow it to be worn in the style of a lasso, or it may be worn doubled over with the ends passed through the loop formed in the middle.